HISTORY IN FACES
Without exaggeration, the period of Edige Turkebaev's leadership can be called the flourishing of the activities of the Scientific Research Economic Institute for Planning and Standards, which, in fact, became the forge of future statesmen of Kazakhstan and authoritative scientists-economists.
For 12 years (1974-1986) NIEIPiN under the State Planning Committee of the Kazakh SSR was headed by a prominent scientist-economist Edyge Turkebaev, Doctor of Economics, Professor, Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Honored Scientist.
Edige Turkebaev was born on April 10, 1929 in the family of a revolutionary and party worker Aytzhan Turkebaev and Amina Kunaeva. After graduating from a seven-year school in the severe 1943, he entered the two-year preparatory department of the Kazakh Mining and Metallurgical Institute.
In 1951, having received his education in the cradle of metallurgists of the USSR - the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys (MISS), where "the first phase of ... development and maturation" ended, he began his career at the Kazakh Metallurgical Plant. As Edyge Aitzhanovich writes in his autobiographical book “Life. Years. Meetings ”(2009), at this plant he and his fellow engineers“ received their initial metallurgical hardening ”.
After working for three years, in 1954 Turkebaev entered the full-time postgraduate study of the MISS at the Department of Metallurgy. After its successful completion, he defended his dissertation and received the degree of candidate of technical sciences. After that, he goes to the Institute of Metallurgy and Beneficiation of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR. In subsequent years, on the personal direction of the President of the Academy of Sciences K. Satpayev, he worked in Karaganda at the newly formed Chemical and Metallurgical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, then at the Karaganda Metallurgical Combine.
Turkebaev's fruitful activity on Karmet attracted the attention of the country's leadership, and in 1965 he was invited to work at the leading Scientific Research Economic Institute (NIEI) of the State Planning Committee of the republic as deputy director. In 1974 he was appointed director of this institute, having worked in this post for 12 years. At the same time, he was a member of the board of the State Planning Committee of the Kazakh SSR. In 1976 he defended his doctoral dissertation in economics. 25 years, almost a quarter of a century, which Edyge Aitzhanovich worked at the Scientific Research Economic Institute for Planning and Standards (NIEIPiN - a later name), were the brightest and most memorable in his life.
The institute was entrusted with important tasks related to increasing the efficiency and location of the productive forces of Kazakhstan. The leading divisions of this scientific institution dealt with complex problems of the republic's economic development. With his direct participation, for the first time in the republic, a new direction of domestic economic science appeared - economic and mathematical modeling. For many years, this direction was headed by the deputy director of NIEIPiN professor Sailau Bayzakov, about whom Edige Turkebaev spoke warmly, noting that his "active work deserves the highest praise."
Heading the institute entrusted to him, taking into account the significant production experience accumulated over almost two decades of work in the leading branch of the Kazakh economy - metallurgy, he considered it important to develop his industry specialization. The leading divisions were created and strengthened here: ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, energy, mechanical engineering, chemical industry, construction complex, light industry, agro-industrial complex, geological profile, complex problems of water management, social problems, labor resources, territorial distribution of production, as well as inter-branch balance and economic and mathematical modeling.
Studies of topical problems of the national economy of Kazakhstan, carried out under the leadership of E. Turkebaev, were combined within the framework of the complex topics of the institute - the development and deployment of the republic's productive forces in the long term. The first such development was the General Scheme for the Development and Distribution of the Productive Forces of the Kazakh SSR for 1971-1980, reflecting the territorial and sectoral aspect of the development of the republic's economy. The pilot development significantly increased the authority of NIEIPiN under the State Planning Committee of the Kazakh SSR among the allied research institutes of an economic profile. This was a certain incentive to deepen the applied scientific developments carried out here, to increase their quality and significance. As a result, NIEIPiN naturally became a leading research institution on the problems of long-term planning of the development of the economy of Kazakhstan.
In fact, this was a new stage in the development of the institute headed by Turkebaev. In the process of development, Kazakhstani sectoral research institutes were involved in promising research and development, a creative relationship was established with scientific institutions of the union republics, and most importantly with union institutions that dealt with the problems of planning and developing the General Scheme. These are: the Commission for the Study of Natural Productive Forces (KEPS) under the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences, the Council for the Study of Productive Forces (SOPS) and the Research Economic Institute (NIEI) under the State Planning Committee of the USSR, the Central Economics and Mathematics Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences. These leading scientific institutions of economic profile were headed by prominent scientists, academicians of the USSR Academy of Sciences: N. Melnikov, N. Nekrasov, A. Efimov, N. Fedorenko.
Major developments carried out under the scientific supervision of Edige Turkebaev include general schemes for the development and distribution of the productive forces of the Kazakh SSR for the periods up to 2000, 1990–2005, 1995–2010, Proposals for the Comprehensive Program of Scientific and Technological Progress of Kazakhstan until 2005. The results of these developments, approved by the State Planning Committee and the Government of the Republic, were highlighted in a number of scientific monographs published under the heading "for official use", which reflected the specifics and peculiarities of that time.
What is the General Scheme?
It is known that in the successful solution of the strategic tasks of the state, the most important role is assigned to the rationalization of the distribution of productive forces and their optimal territorial organization. The General Scheme is one of the key tools for analyzing and forecasting the national economy, that is, a strategic document containing a scientific justification for the development and distribution of the country's productive forces in the future. This document was not an ideological "invention" of the Soviet state. In many developed countries, such a document is still being developed, since it has been tested by time, has a serious scientific basis, laid down in the works of authoritative economists from different countries.
For example, at all stages of its development, Japan, starting from the post-war period, attached great importance to the development and implementation of plans and programs for regional development. Here, as in other countries, the practice is to create a special legislative framework for regional development and management. The main regulator of regional development in the Land of the Rising Sun is the state itself. His "interference" in the affairs of the regions consists of, firstly, complicity in their co-financing, and secondly, active stimulation of the private sector in order to involve it in the implementation of programs and projects for regional development.
I will add that in Russia, even after the collapse of the USSR, a General Scheme for the development and distribution of the country's productive forces is being developed. This is done by the RF SOPS, which is now under the jurisdiction of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the country's Ministry of Economic Development.
Carrying out complex, laborious work that accompanied the development of the General Scheme required well-coordinated collective work of scientists-economists from NIEIPiN. It successfully applied economic and mathematical methods and forecasting models. This contributed to the choice of the best version of the promising layout of the productive forces of the Kazakh SSR as part of the country's unified national economic complex.
The problems of the socio-economic development of our republic, which were subsequently reflected in the five-year plans and the state budget of the republic, were elaborated in detail and in various ways in the General Scheme. The document represented a serious scientific basis for justifying the rational distribution of industries and services in the republic. In essence, the development of the General Scheme is a detailed preplanned study. It can be called a draft design of a strategic plan for the development of the national economy. It is no exaggeration to say that the General Scheme is a clear reference point, without which it was impossible to successfully plan the development of our republic in the future. It is clear that in those years no one predicted the collapse of a large country...
It should be noted that the multilateral activity of the institute during the leadership of E. Turkebaev and S. Baizakov is characterized by developed creative ties with the country's largest scientists-economists: academicians of the USSR Academy of Sciences A. Aganbegyan, A. Granberg, T. Khachaturov and many eminent professors.
Especially friendly relations developed with L. Kantorovich, the only Soviet winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics. According to Edyge Aytzhanovich, he "treated him and S. Baizakov extremely warmly." A vivid confirmation of this is the speech sent by them both with a dedication at the presentation of the Nobel Prize (1975).
For all the years of its effective activity, NIEIPiN under the State Planning Committee of the Republic has educated and raised a whole galaxy of statesmen. Among them are the future first vice-president of Kazakhstan E. Asanbayev, ministers, regional akims, many prominent scientists-economists of the country who are actively continuing to work.
Turkebayev's activities as director were awarded with government orders and medals. In 1989 he was elected a Corresponding Member and later a Full Member of the National Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan. Since 1986, he voluntarily yielded a leading position to the younger generation, he switched to teaching, becoming the head of the department of the Kazakh Polytechnic Institute. K. Satpayev.
Here he worked almost until the last days of his life as a professor, transferring the accumulated rich knowledge in the field of economics, metallurgy and other industries to students and graduate students of our country.
Edige Turkebaev is the author of 18 monographs, more than 400 scientific articles, including those published in the far abroad. I cannot fail to mention his three times republished book "Triumph and Tragedy of the 20th Century". “The twentieth century is over and gone into the irrevocable past. A century, the significance of which in the development of mankind is significant for its major contribution to world social life, ”he writes nostalgically, but realistically.
Being a highly erudite person, professionally dealing with the problems of metallurgy and economics, he brilliantly understood and appreciated classical music, literature and poetry. For hours, without repeating, he could recite A. Pushkin, M. Lermontov, S. Yesenin, whom he especially revered, many other classics of Russian poetry. It is noteworthy that he himself wrote poetry, the reading of which is a great aesthetic pleasure.
Edyge Aytzhanovich lived a bright and happy life, having adequately justified the behests of his father Aytzhan Turkebaev “to be human first of all”. This is how everyone who communicated with him knows him. A man with a capital letter. The bright memory of a great scientist, a wonderful, deeply intelligent person, an aristocrat in spirit and manners will forever remain in the memory of comrades-in-arms and colleagues, students and pupils.